WEIGHTS, MEASURES AND COINAGE [simplified from the Chronik, p 476]

Grain measures: (these could vary in different regions, also husked grain weighed less than unhusked)

1 Malter (3872 litres) = 4 Mütt, 1 Mütt = 4 Viertel, 1 Viertel = 4 Vierlig, 1 Vierlig = 4 Mässli, 1 Mässli = about one and a half litres.

Liquids:

1 Saum (213.76 litres) = 4 Eimer, 1 Eimer = 32 Mass, 1 Mass = 31 Schuppen, 1 Schuppen = .054 litres

Other weights:

1 Pfund = 20 Unzen or 32 Lot. = 456 grammes, 1 Unze = 22.8 grammes, 1 Lot = 14.25 grammes.

Length (mainly used for textiles):

1 Fuss = about 30 cm., 1 Wollelle = about 60 cm., 1 Leinwandelle = about 72 cm.

Coinage: According to Voellmy, (v.2 pp.387ff) this was minted by the Prince-Abbot of St. Gallen, but was legal tender beyond his territory. e.g. in Appenzell.

[Nearest equivalent sum in modern English coinage]
1 Louis d'or = 5 thaler or 10 Gulden 15

1 Thaler 3

1 Gulden or Florin = 60 Kreutzer 1.50

1 Oertli = 15 Kreutzer 60p

1 Batzen = 4 Kreutzer 10p

1 Groschen = 3 Kreutzer ½p

1 Kreutzer = 4 Pfennige 2½p

1 Pfennig = 4 Heller 2p

1 Heller = 1 penny

[For those old enough to be familiar with pre-decimalisation coinage, some nearer equivalents are

Heller = farthing; Pfennig = penny; Groschen = threepence; Kreutzer = sixpence

It can be seen that the larger coins were adapted from those of other countries: the louis d'or from France, the Gulden from the Netherlands, and the Thaler from Austria, possibly in an attempt to standardise large sums for imports and exports.]


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